When referencing a trademark or copyright, the symbols TM, R, and C are typically used to denote specific elements of an intellectual property registration. These symbols are frequently used in the ways listed below:
™ – TM Symbol ©
When apply for trademark online a trademark application to the trademark registrar, the TM symbol is utilized. The TM symbol is intended to warn potential trademark violators and counter-fitters that a trademark application exists for the subject trademark.
The symbol SM, or “Service Mark,” is used with trademark applications filed in classes 35–45. For trademark applications submitted under classes 1-34 and 35-45, some applicants want to utilize the TM symbol. Both employing an SM mark for trademark applications under classes 35–45 and the TM symbol for all classes are permissible.
® – R Symbol
The applicant may begin utilizing the ® symbol next to the trademark once it has been registered. When a trademark has the R symbol, it has been registered and is therefore protected from infringement by trademark law. It is forbidden to use the ® symbol after submitting a trademark application or without first registering a mark.
©- C Symbol
Any work that can be protected by copyright, such as artwork, photography, videography, books, literary works, etc., is indicated by the symbol (copyright), which also serves as a reserved right notification. Along with the name of the copyright holder and the year of first publication, the C sign is used. In some nations, using the sign correctly is necessary to assert copyright protection. India is a signatory of the Berne Convention, which does, however, require the use of the emblem to claim copyright protection. Therefore, even though it is not required by law, using the emblem alerts infringers.